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french wars of religion causes

On 1 March, however, a faction of the Guise family's retainers attacked a Calvinist service in Wassy-sur-Blaise in Champagne, massacring the worshippers and most of the residents of the town. It entailed rebellions against the crown, inter-communal violence and a struggle between moderate Catholics and radicals. [47] Their example was soon followed by Protestant groups around France. The legislation made concessions to the Huguenots to dissuade them from rebelling. [18] However, Calvinism appears to have developed with large support from the nobility. After the murder of the Huguenot leader Gaspard II de Coligny in the Massacre of Saint Bartholomew’s Day (1572), the civil war resumed. War could no longer be avoided and civil tolerance had failed. Francis II of France, at this point only 15 years old, was weak and lacked the qualities that allowed his predecessors to impose their will on the leading noblemen at court. It is estimated that three million people perished in this period from violence, famine, or disease in what is considered the second deadliest religious war in European history (surpassed only by the Thirty Years' War, which took eight million lives). The French Wars of Religion were a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed/Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France between 1562 and 1598. He and his troops controlled most of rural Normandy. However, the House of Guise, having an advantage in the King's wife, Mary, Queen of Scots, who was their niece, moved quickly to exploit the situation at the expense of their rivals, the House of Montmorency. Another war followed, which concl… The leadership of the Catholic League had devolved to the Duke de Mayenne, who was appointed Lieutenant-General of the kingdom. But the civil war was more than a religious war. The Protestants were represented by 12 ministers and 20 laymen, led by Théodore de Bèze. [4], In 1495 the Venetian Aldus Manutius began using the newly invented printing press to produce small, inexpensive, pocket editions of Greek, Latin, and vernacular literature, making knowledge in all disciplines available for the first time to a wide public. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... French Huguenots grieving after the Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day (August 24–25, 1572), in which thousands of Huguenots were killed by French Catholic forces. Catherine de’ Medici has been held partly responsible for starting the French Wars of Religion. Huguenot leaders such as Condé and Coligny fled court in fear for their lives, many of their followers were murdered, and in September, the Edict of Saint-Maur revoked the freedom of Huguenots to worship. [72] In keeping with Salic Law, he named Henry as his heir. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Having then made a miraculous escape from there, he withdrew into Flanders, but with his health quickly declining, Farnese called his son Ranuccio to command his troops. In November 1579, Condé seized the town of La Fère, leading to another round of military action, which was brought to an end by the Treaty of Fleix (November 1580), negotiated by Anjou. Humanism, which began much earlier in Italy, arrived in France in the early sixteenth century, coinciding with the beginning of the French Protestant Reformation. Corruption among the clergy showed the need for reform and Lutheran ideas made impressions of such hope. The deaths of the opposing…, Germany, France, and the Netherlands each achieved a settlement of the religious problem by means of war, and in each case the solution contained original aspects. As a result, their interests clashed and conflicts began. This, however, was no easy task. A leader of the Catholic League, he invoked the hereditary rights of his wife, Marie de Luxembourg, who was a descendant of the dukes of Brittany and heiress of the Blois-Brosse claim to the duchy as well as Duchess of Penthièvre in Brittany, and organized a government at Nantes. For other French civil wars, see, Corruption of the established religious system, The "Amboise conspiracy," or "Tumult of Amboise", Colloquy of Poissy and the Edict of Saint-Germain, The "Armed Peace" (1563–1567) and the "second" war (1567–1568), St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre and after (1572–1573), Death of Charles IX and the "fifth" war (1574–1576), The Catholic League and the "sixth" war (1576–1577), The "seventh" war (1579–1580) and the death of Anjou (1584), The Estates-General of Blois and assassination of Henry of Guise (1588), Henry IV's "Conquest of the Kingdom" (1589–1593), Resolution of the War in Brittany (1598–1599). Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Marguerite, Queen of Navarre, the sister of King Francis I and mother of Jeanne d'Albret, also became part of the circle. In the first half of the 17th century, the German states, Scandinavia ( Sweden , primarily) and Poland were beset by religious warfare in the Thirty Years War . Seminole Wars 1814-1858 Anglo-Zulu War 1879 The Crimean War 1853-1856 The Plains Wars 1850s-1890s French Indian War 1754-1763 The Mahdist Revolt 1884 American Civil War 1861-1865 American War of Ind. Despite the campaigns between 1590 and 1592, Henry IV was "no closer to capturing Paris". Reports of iconoclasm in Flanders led Charles IX to lend support to the Catholics there; French Huguenots feared a Catholic re-mobilisation against them. French Wars of Religion (1562-1629) 1562-63 – The first war starts after the Edict of Toleration in January 1562.Catholic violence at Vassy in March signals start of first war. The mediation of Catherine de'Medici led to the Edict of Union, in which the crown accepted almost all the League's demands: reaffirming the Treaty of Nemours, recognizing Cardinal de Bourbon as heir, and making Henry of Guise Lieutenant-General. [35], On 5 December 1560, Francis II died, and his mother Catherine de' Medici became regent for her second son, Charles IX. [70] During the Estates-General, Henry III suspected that the members of the third estate were being manipulated by the League and became convinced that Guise had encouraged the duke of Savoy's invasion of Saluzzo in October 1588. It is estimated that three million people perished in this period from violence, famine, or disease in what is considered the second deadliest religious war in European history (surpassed only by the Thirty Years' War, which took eight million lives).[1]. [27] Calvinism proved attractive to people from across the social hierarchy and occupational divides, and it was highly regionalized, with no coherent pattern of geographical spread. A most notable moderate, at least initially, was the queen mother, Catherine de' Medici. In 1562, the Huguenots were defeated by Guise in the first battle of the war. In reaction to the Peace, Catholic confraternities and leagues sprang up across the country in defiance of the law throughout the summer of 1568. [46] A group of Protestant nobles, led by the prince of Condé and proclaiming that they were liberating the king and regent from "evil" councillors, organised a kind of protectorate over the Protestant churches. Indeed, in January 1599, Henry had to visit the Parliament in person to have the Edict passed. Historians estimate that 2,000 Huguenots were killed in Paris and thousands more in the provinces; in all, perhaps 10,000 people were killed. Philip Benedict, ‘Un roi, une loi, deux fois: Parameters for the History of Catholic–Protestant Co-existence in France, 1555–1685’, in O. Grell & B. Scribner (eds), Tolerance and Intolerance in the European Reformation (1996), pp. Thus, a national council of clergy gathered on the banks of the Seine River in the town of Poissy in July 1561. Meanwhile, the Queen Mother became increasingly fearful of the unchecked power wielded by Coligny and his supporters, especially as it became clear that Coligny was pursuing an alliance with England and the Dutch Protestant rebels. Wars of Religion, (1562–98) conflicts in France between Protestants and Roman Catholics. [13] Francis tried to steer a middle course in the developing religious schism in France. Since the sixteenth century, the French Protestants who were known as the Huguenots and the Catholics were in a religious conflict which had lead to them into a civil war (Wikipedia, French Wars of Religion, 2004). Henry's forces then went on to besiege Paris, but after a long and desperately fought resistance by the Parisians, Henry's siege was lifted by a Spanish army under the command of the Duke of Parma. [25] The French intensified the fight against heresy in the 1540s forcing Protestants to gather secretly to worship. That July, the French expelled the English. At the Battle of Jarnac (16 March 1569), the prince of Condé was killed, forcing Admiral de Coligny to take command of the Protestant forces, nominally on behalf of Condé's 15-year-old son, Henry, and the 16-year-old Henry of Navarre, who were presented by Jeanne d'Albret as the legitimate leaders of the Huguenot cause against royal authority. [33] (In the polemics that followed, the term "Huguenot" for France's Protestants came into widespread usage. He was the leading minister of Geneva who invited John Calvin to serve there. The first seven wars (1562-1563, 1567-1568, 1568-1570, 1572-1573, 1575-1577, 1577, 1579-1580) had common features: a split society between Catholics and However, the agreed upon beginning of the wars is the Massacre of Wassy in 1562, and the Edict of Nantes at least ended this series of conflicts. Related PostsSecond French War of ReligionThe French Wars of Religion were a series of nine wars that lasted over 35 years. A peace compromise in 1576 allowed the Huguenots freedom of worship. Despite Henry according his youngest brother Francis the title of Duke of Anjou, the prince and his followers continued to create disorder at court through their involvement in the Dutch Revolt. By the end of 1594, certain League members still worked against Henry across the country, but all relied on Spain's support. In November, William of Orange led an army into France to support his fellow Protestants, but, the army being poorly paid, he accepted the crown's offer of money and free passage to leave the country. In France, unlike in Germany, the nobles also supported the policies and the status quo of their time. The damage done to the Huguenots meant a decline from 10% to 8% of the French population. On 12 May 1588, the Day of the Barricades, a popular uprising raised barricades on the streets of Paris to defend the Duke of Guise against the alleged hostility of the king, and Henry III fled the city. French Revolutionary wars, title given to the hostilities between France and one or more European powers between 1792 and 1799. Historians estimate that in the 1560s more than half of the nobility were Calvinist (or Huguenot), and 1,200–1,250 Calvinist churches had been established; by the outbreak of war in 1562, there were perhaps two million Calvinists in France. 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